For over 12 years, professional contractors have relied on Kawsar products to make strong and permanent joints for PVC pressure and drainage lines. This guide is intended to assist you in learning the techniques and technical requirements needed for joining plastic pipe and fittings.
The recommendations presented here are based on the knowledge and experience of Kawsar's team and technical experts. It is recommended that you carefully observe and respect job site conditions as they
Kawsar offers hands-on training of proper joining techniques. Users that need to expand their familiarity with best practices are encouraged to contact us to arrange individualized training. Kawsar's solvent cements offers solutions for virtually every application providing the distributor and contractor “one stop shopping” in a single proven brand. Our technical brochures can guide you toward selecting the right products and formulations for your application.
Kawsar's solvent cement and primers are manufactured in a dedicated facility using state-of-the-art equipment and sophisticated process controls. These ensure the absolute consistency and performance required to meet ASTM, standards noted for each product.
Solvent-cemented joints are easy to make and permanent if one follows basic rules, namely the pipe must be cut square, clean, and sufficient solvent cement must be applied; assembly must be made while the joining surfaces are still wet; and the joint must be left to cure for a period of time before movement.
Our Products Range and Standards through which we manufacture
PVC Solvent Cement
CPVC Solvent Cement
ASTM D2846 & F493
1. PVC Solvent Cement
PVC piping systems are used for many applications including DWV(Drain, Waste and Vent), potable water systems, process pipe and sewer pipe. It is the most widely used type of plastic pipe. PVC pipe is very
durable and can be used for applications up to 140 degrees Fahrenheit.
2. CPVC Solvent Cement
CPVC piping systems are used for a wide range of jobs. Copper tube size (CTS) CPVC pipe is designed for use in hot and cold potable water distribution systems. It can be used for residential applications, hotels and light commercial buildings. CTS pipe is very durable and can be used for applications up to 180 degrees Fahrenheit. Larger diameter schedule 80 CPVC piping systems can be used for applications up to 200 degrees Fahrenheit. CPVC pipe is specially formulated to handle more corrosive materials and withstand higher internal pressure.
Primers are an important piece of the solvent cement process and are required by building codes for most applications. They help to prepare the pipe and fitting for solvent cementing by cleaning and softening the pipe and fitting making sure that the final joint integrity is maximized. For most cases, a cleaner should be used, followed by a primer and then the solvent cement. Additionally, after application of the primer, the solvent cement should be applied immediately before the primer dries. Not that primers should NOT be used for ABS pipe and that cleaner should be used in its place.
Cleaners are an important piece of the solvent cement process. Though not required by building codes, cleaners help to prepare the pipe and fitting for solvent cementing by cleaning the pipe and fitting, maximizing final joint integrity. For most cases, a cleaner should be used, followed by a primer and then the solvent cement. Note that primers should NOT be used for ABS pipe and that cleaner should be used in its place.
Reasons for Failed PVC Joints
- Insufficient solvent cement applied to both surfaces.
- Solvent cement applied to only one surface.
- The solvent cement has partially dried or is completely dried prior to assembly of the joint.
- Using partially “jelled” or “stringy” cement which cannot bite into the pipe or fitting.
- Cementing surfaces were not properly prepared prior to applying the solvent cement (dirty, etc.)
- Improper solvent cement type was used.
- Excessive tolerances (gap) between pipe and fitting that cannot be “filled” by the solvent cement being used.
- Piping not properly bottomed out: either a “dry” joint or not cut square.
- The joint has been disturbed and the bond broken prior to a firm set.
- Climate conditions: temperature and humidity greatly impact creation of proper joints.
Working with Solvent Cements
Leaky joints will invariably show shiny spots that could create leak channels from the socket bottom to the outer edge of the joint. A properly made joint will always have a dull satin-like finish. Removal of the shine shows that active solvent has attacked the surfaces, allowing chemical fusion to take place.
The procedures described here will make strong, pressure-tight joints in the shop or in the field. However, it is the knowledge of the operator/installer performing the solvent cementing function that is of critical importance for a successful job. These procedures are general in nature, and may vary among different manufacturers; however, these procedures apply to both pressure and nonpressure applications and apply only to PVC (polyvinyl chloride) as described in Specification D 2855. Plastic pipe and fittings are manufactured within certain predetermined tolerances to provide for small variations in the manufacturing process.
Please read the cautions and warnings as described on each container. Solvent cements are highly flammable, can cause severe irritation to the eyes, lungs, and skin if not properly handled and used in a well-ventilated area. Solvent cements are classified as hazardous materials by various government agencies.Solvent cements are considered unstable for use if there is an appreciable change in viscosity; if they become jellied or string-like, they should be discarded. Do not mix solvent cements. Solvent cements cannot be reactivated with primers or other solvents. Do not thin.
Make certain you have the proper solvent cement for the job. Available today are regular, medium and heavy body solvent cements each with an intended function. There are also clear and different pigmented solvent cements available, as well as specialty solvent cements. The regular body grades are usually near-water-thin and intended for small diameter PVC piping—½inch, ¾ inch, and 1 inch. The viscosity can be determined by shaking the can. Sound and feel help indicate the viscosity. Great care must be exercised when using a regular body solvent cement because the viscosity is such that it has a tendency to run and leave very little on the piping. Climatic variables can also make the solvent evaporate more quickly.
An excellent test for any solvent cement is to apply a small amount to the piping, allow it to penetrate for up to one minute, and then scrape it with a knife to determine the mil penetration of the solvent.
Shaking the closed container can also tell you a lot. If the solvent cement sounds and feels like water, water-thin cement is typically good for small-diameter applications. Additionally, shaking the can will help determine if the cement is still liquid or if it has started to set or gel in the can.
When not in use, store solvent and primers in a cool, dry storage area, out of direct sunlight. When storing an opened container, make certain the lid is firmly secured and sealed by turning the can upside down to observe if it leaks. Screw-top containers are not considered to be airtight and have a limited shelf life.
Solvent Cementing with a Primer
Preparation - Assemble the proper materials for the job: primer, solvent cement, and applicators necessary for the pipe sizes being assembled. Solvent cementing is a fast procedure because you must put together wet joints with speed. An individual joint should be put together in less than one minute on the smaller diameters of PVC piping. Therefore, make certain you have everything necessary to do the job—rags, knife, saw, sandpaper, applicator, pipe, fittings, file, so that the task at hand can be accomplished quickly, with precision, and in a timelymanner.
Step 1 CUT
Pipe must be cut as square as possible. The bottom 1/3 of fitting is the strongest part of the joint ,so if you have a crooked cut, pipe will not bottom properly. Use a pipe cutter, power saw, miter box and saw or
Step 2 DEBURR
Remove all internal and external burrs, shavings and raised beads with a file or debarring tool. On outside of pipe use a file or beveling tool to produce a 3/32", 10-15 degree chamfer. Burrsand unbeveled pipe can scrape channels into softened fittings resulting in leaks
Step 3 CLEAN
Wipe with a clean and dry rag. Moisture will extend cure time and dirt or grease can prevent proper, leak free joints.
Step 4 CUT
Check pipe and fitting for proper dry fit before cementing. For a good interference fit, the pipe should easily slip into the fitting 1/3 to 2/3 of the way. Too tight of a fit is not acceptable becausethe pipe may not be able to bottom into fitting during assembly.
If the pipe bottoms in the fitting with no interference but not loose, a satisfactory joint can be made provided the pipe and fitting are not out of round.
To see if a fitting is acceptable for bonding, hold a short piece of the pipe in a vertical position and insert the fitting on the end. If the fitting falls out of the pipe, do not assemble. Call your pipe and fitting supplier. All pipe and fittings must conform to ASTM or other recognized standards.
A handy way to insure that the pipe fully bottoms into the fitting when making the final solvent connection is to mark the pipe. To do this, measure depth of fitting socket and make a line on the outside of pipe
representing the proper fit. Put a second mark an inch or two above this mark as a reference as the primer and cement could remove or cover the first mark.
Step 5 CHOOSE APPLICATOR
Use the proper size applicator (dauber, swab, roller or brush) for the size of pipe and fittings being joined. The applicator size should be at least 1/2 the diameter ofthe pipe. If too small an applicator is used, a sufficient amount of cement cannot be applied. Kawsar offers a wide selection of applicators and empty cans to help you achieve best results. Do not assume the applicator provided with the can is automatically the correct size for your pipe diameter.
(Special note: complete steps - within 0
seconds to assure a secure joint )
Step 6 PRIMING
A primer is used to penetrate and soften the surfaces of the pipe and fittings so that they can befused together. To check the penetration orto check the penetration or Softening properties of the primer before installation begins take a small piece of scrap pipe and aggressively apply the primer. While still wet, use a knife or other sharp object and drag across the primed surface. A thin layer of the pipe surface will scrape away if there has been proper penetration and softening.
Please note, in cold weather repeated applications of primer and cement and more time will be required for proper penetrationand softening. Begin priming process with proper size applicator; aggressively apply the primer into the fitting socket. Keep the surface wetuntil softened. It may be necessary to re-dip the applicator in the primer. Do not let primer puddle in the socket.
Next, quickly and aggressively apply primer to the pipe up to or just below the mark measuring the fitting socket length. Then, without hesitation, apply a second application of primer to the fitting socket. Again do not let primer puddle or run past thefitting stop.
Step 7 CEMENTING
Stir or shake the cement before using. Do not thin. While surfaces of fitting and pipe are still wet or tacky from priming, use the proper sizeapplicator to aggressively apply a full even layer of solvent cement equal to the depth of the socket onto the pipe. Do not brush into a thin layer. This will cause cement to dry too quickly - especially in hot weather Then aggressively apply a medium layer of cement into the fitting socket. Avoid puddling primer or solvent in the fitting or downstream portion of the pipe. Excessive solvent and/or primer puddled can “burn” through the wall or blister the piping leaving a soft spot and permanently weakening the wall leading to failure. On bell-end pipe do not coat beyond socket depth or let cement run beyond the bell Next, apply another full layer of cement on the pipe. Most joint failures are caused by insufficient cement.
Step 8 JOINING
Immediately, while cement is still wet or tacky, assemble the pipe into the fitting. Do not assemble if cement coatings are hardened. If so, start over. While inserting pipe into fitting, twist pipe 1/8to 1/4 turn until pipe has bottomed into socket of fitting. Do notcontinue to rotate after the pipe has reached the socket stop. Hold the pipe and fitting together for at least 30 seconds to prevent movement or push-out. Check around top of joint for a ring or bead of cement. If there are gaps or voids in this bead, sufficient cement may not have been applied and the joint may be defective and leak. Using a rag, remove the excess cement from the pipe and fitting. This bead or excess cement is not needed and will not provide extra strength in the joint and will extend the set and cure time. newly assembled joints must not be handled during set time and handled very carefully during cure time. check recommended cure times before hydro-testing piping system. See Set and cure time chart. Do not test With Air.
SOLVENT CEMENT TIPS AND ADDITIONAL CONSIDRATION
Working with large Diameter Pipe and Fittings:
Depending on the size of the PVC piping to be installed, up to four people and mechanical joining tools may be required to quickly and properly align and install plastic pipe. Position yourself, pipe, and fittings to assure proper joint alignment during installation. Use specialized tools to assure pipe and fittings properly “bottom” completely. The finished joint must not be disturbed until cured. Always select the proper size applicators and follow all procedures carefully. Select the appropriate solvent cement type / formulation based on the guidelines in the Kawsar solvent cements family brochure.
COLD WEATHER SOLVENT CEMENTING
Working in freezing temperatures is difficult. KAWSAR is the finest cement available for extreme conditions.
KAWSAR has EXCELLENT COLD WEATHER STABILITY for virtually all practical applications.
By following our standard instructions and using a little extra care and patience, successful solvent cemented joints can be made at temperatures even as low as 0° F. In cold weather, solvents penetrate and soften the plastic surfaces more slowly than in warm weather. Also, the plastic is more resistant to solvent attack. Therefore, it becomes even more important to pre-soften surfaces with a Kawsar Primer. Longer cure times are also necessary. The cure schedules printed in our technical brochure allow a wide margin for safety, but for colder weather more time should be allowed. Things to remember when Solvent cementing in cold Weather:
Prefabricate as much of the system as is possible in a heated and ventilated work area.
2. Store cements and primers in a warm area when not in use and make sure they remain fluid.
3. Also store fittings in a warmer area, if possible.
4. Take special care to remove dirt and moisture (including ice and snow) from the surfaces to be
5. Use primer to soften the joining surfaces before applying cement. More than one application may
be necessary. Aggressively “Scrub” primer into pipe surface until milky.
6. Be sure to apply solvent cement “male-female-male” sequentially, per directions on can.
7. Wipe-off excess cement and solvent bead.
8. Allow a longer cure period before the system is tested and used.
9. Read and follow directions carefully before installation.
Typical Initial Set time For Kawsar Solvent Cement
Typical set schedule is required time before it is advisable to carefully handle joint. In wet or humid conditions, additional set time may be required of up to 50% of amount listed. Use as General guidelines only.
TYPICAL JOINTS CURE SHEDULE FOR KAWSAR SOLVENT CEMENT
In damp or humid weather allow 50% more cure time. These figures are estimates based on our laboratory tests. Due to the many variables in the field, use as a general guide only
TYPICAL NUMBER OF JOINTS PER QUAT OF KAWSAR SOLVENT CEMENT
Read all information carefully before using this product
DANGER: EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE. VAPORS MACAUSE FLASH FIRES.MAY IRRITATE EYES ANDSKIN. VAPOR HARMFUL. MAY
IRRITATE RESPIRATORY TRACT AND CAUSE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DEPRESSION. HARMFUL ORFATAL IF SWALLOWED.
May cause irritation to eyes, skin, and nose, throat, and respiratory tract. May cause coughing, sore throat, difficulty breathing,
headache, dizziness, nausea. Long term repeatedoverexposures to solvents may cause damage to the brain, nervous system,
reproductive system respiratory system, mucous membranes, liver, and kidneys